Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.
Osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. The cancer (malignant) cells make immature bone cells (osteoid). Osteosarcoma is rare, but it is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. It is most common when teens have growth spurts. That is between the ages of 13 and 16.
The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum....more
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.
Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the retina of the eye. The retina is in the back of the eye. It’s the part of the eye that receives light. Retinoblastoma is the most common tumor affecting the eye in children. It almost always occurs in children less than 5 years old.
Detailed information on visual screening tests in children...more
Wilms tumor is a cancerous tumor that starts in the cells of the kidney. It’s the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It’s usually found by the time a child is age 3 or 4. The tumor can be very large before it’s found. And it may spread (metastasize) to other body tissues.
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations...more
Human blood consists of about 22 percent solids and 78 percent water. The components of blood are plasma, fat globules, chemicals, and gases....more
Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood. The cancer cells grow in bone marrow and go into the blood.
Detailed information on how the liver works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system...more
Detailed information on common diagnostic procedures for digestive disorders in children...more
NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.
Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.
Detailed information on skin cancer, including causes, types, risk factors, and prevention...more
Detailed information on treatment for skin cancer...more
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer. It starts in cells that grow into skeletal muscle cells. The cells are called rhabdomyoblasts. Skeletal muscles control all of a person’s voluntary muscle movements. The cancer is most common in children under age 10, but it is rare. It can form anywhere in the body.
Germ cells form as a baby grows in the womb. The cells usually form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. Germ cell tumors are made up of these underdeveloped cells. The tumors may be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign).
Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in babies under age 1. It’s rare in children older than age 10.
There is no one single cause for cancer. Scientists believe that it is the interaction of many factors--genetic, environmental, or constitutional characteristics of the individual....more
Many tests are necessary to determine whether a child has cancer, or if another condition is mimicking the symptoms of cancer....more
A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure that helps doctors determine if or how far a cancer has spread within the body....more
The specific treatment for your child's cancer will be determined by your child's doctor, based on a variety of factors, including the type of cancer and the extent of the disease....more
Surgery can be classified as major or minor, depending on the seriousness of the illness, the parts of the body affected, the complexity of the operation, and the expected recovery time....more
Minimally invasive surgery is often used today. It allows the child to recuperate faster and with less pain....more
It's important to keep your baby's routine the same before the day of surgery. Make sure you, your baby, and your family are well rested....more
Read books to your toddler about going to the hospital. Keep any explanations simple and be careful of the words you use....more
Before coming to the hospital, remove any watches, necklaces, or earrings that your child wears and leave them at home so they are not misplaced....more
Your child will need to know that people in the operating room will be wearing surgical clothes to help prevent germs from infecting the surgical incision....more
When a child has cancer or another pain-causing disease, one of his or her greatest fears is pain. Every effort should be made to ease the pain during the treatment process....more
Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years. It’s one of the most common treatments for cancer.
Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages....more
Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age....more
Protect your child from the sun. Up to 80 percent of total lifetime sun exposure occurs in the first 18 years of life....more
Become familiar with how your breasts usually look and feel so that you may notice any change from what is normal for you....more
Ninety percent of new smokers are children and teenagers. In many cases, they are replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease....more
All tobacco products, from cigarettes to snuff, contain toxins, carcinogens, and nicotine, an addictive substance....more
If someone you love has cancer, you probably feel sad, angry, and confused. It's OK to feel this way. Cancer is a serious disease. Your loved one is sick. He or she will need to see the doctor a lot. It can help to learn more about cancer....more
If you are curious about your loved one's treatment, you may want to ask if you can go with them to a clinic visit or any of the other appointments they may have. Your loved one may not want you to come, or he or she may be happy that you're interested....more
For infants and toddlers, death has very little meaning. School-aged children begin to understand death as permanent, universal, and inevitable. A predominant theme in adolescence is a feeling of immortality or being exempt from death....more
The ultimate goal in discussing death with a dying child is to optimize his or her comfort and alleviate any fears. If the child is not ready to discuss death, the most helpful step parents can take is to wait until he or she is ready....more