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Smoking

According to the American Heart Association, diseases caused by smoking kill more than 440,000 people in the United States each year; of that number, more than 135,000 deaths are cardiovascular related. Even with antismoking campaigns and medical disclaimers in place, many people continue to smoke or start smoking every year. One out of five deaths of Americans is related to smoking, and it kills more Americans each year than suicides, homicides, AIDS, and car accidents combined. According to the American Cancer Society, 90 percent of new smokers are children and teenagers, in many cases replacing the smokers who quit or died prematurely from a smoking-related disease.

Smokers not only have increased risk for lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer. Almost one-third of all cancers are related to smoking. Smoking kills more women each year than breast cancer. 

Facts about smoking and teens

Consider the latest statistics available from the American Lung Association:

  • Every day approximately 3,600 children between 12 and 17 years of age smoke their first cigarette, and an estimated 1,100 of them will become regular smokers.

  • At least 4.5 million adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) are current smokers.

  • Among 12th graders, 20 percent smoke cigarettes daily.

How does smoking affect the cardiovascular system?

In posing health risks on the body's cardiovascular system, smoking:

  • Causes immediate and long-term increases in blood pressure

  • Causes immediate and long-term increases in heart rate

  • Reduces cardiac output and coronary blood flow

  • Reduces the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues

  • Changes the properties of blood vessels and blood cells, allowing cholesterol and other fatty substances to build up

  • Contributes to higher blood pressure and increased risk for blood clot formation

  • Damages blood vessels

  • Doubles the risk for ischemic stroke (reduced blood flow to the brain)

  • Stimulates the blood clotting process

In addition, smoking has been associated with depression and psychological distress.

What are the risks of secondhand smoke?

The CDC reports that an estimated 46,000 nonsmokers die from coronary heart disease each year as a result of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Secondhand smoke is smoke that is exhaled by smokers and smoke emitted from the burning end of a lit cigarette, cigar, or pipe. Secondhand smoke can also cause lung cancer.  

Both direct and indirect smoking exposure poses significant health hazards to pregnant women, infants, and young children. Children and infants exposed to tobacco smoke are more likely to experience ear infections and asthma, and are at a higher risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) than children and infants without the same exposure.

The following common symptoms may be associated with exposure to secondhand smoke. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat

  • Coughing

  • Excessive phlegm (mucus in the airways)

  • Chest discomfort from lung irritation

  • Chest pain, which may indicate heart disease

The symptoms of secondhand smoke exposure may resemble other medical conditions and problems. Always consult your adolescent's health care provider for a diagnosis.

Creating a smoke-free environment indoors and outdoors protects nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure. 

Smoking and cardiovascular disease

Smoking, in addition to high cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes, tops the list as a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In fact, smoking has been classified as the single most preventable cause of premature death in the U.S.

Importance of smoking cessation

According to the American Heart Association, eliminating smoking not only reduces the risk for coronary heart disease, but also reduces the risk for repeat heart attacks and death by heart disease by 50 percent. Research also indicates that smoking cessation is crucial in the management of many contributors to heart attack, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Importance of quitting smoking

Quitting smoking is both a mental and a physical undertaking. Mentally, you should be ready and relatively stress-free. Physically, you need to commit to exercising daily and getting plenty of sleep. A person trying to quit must overcome two obstacles: a physical addiction to nicotine and a habit. The National Cancer Institute offers the following tips to help users quit using tobacco products:

  • Think about why you want to quit

  • Pick a stress-free time to quit

  • Ask for support and encouragement from family and friends

  • Start a daily exercise or activity to relieve stress and improve your health

  • Get plenty of rest

  • Eat a balanced diet

  • Join a smoking cessation program or other support group

In some cases, smokers benefit from nicotine replacement products to help break their smoking habit. Nicotine replacement products continue to give smokers nicotine to meet their nicotine craving. However, the benefit of nicotine replacement products is the elimination of tars and poisonous gases that cigarettes emit. Pregnant or nursing women and people with other medical conditions should consult their doctor before using any nicotine replacement products. Some examples of nicotine replacement products include:

  • Nicotine chewing gum. An over-the-counter (OTC) chewing gum that releases small amounts of nicotine to help reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms.

  • Nicotine patch. An OTC patch applied to the upper body once a day that releases a steady dose of nicotine to help reduce the urge to smoke.

  • Nicotine lozenge. A lozenge that dissolves in the mouth and releases small amounts of nicotine to reduce any cravings to smoke. 

  • Nicotine inhaler or nasal spray. A prescription nicotine replacement product that releases nicotine to help reduce withdrawal symptoms (requires a doctor's approval before use).

Non-nicotine options to quit smoking: Zyban (bupropion) and Chantix (varenicline)

Zyban, a non-nicotine alternative to help people stop smoking, was approved in 1996 by the FDA. Offered in pill form to smokers who want to quit, Zyban, has been shown to alter mood transmitters in the brain that are linked to addiction. Zyban must be prescribed by a health care provider and may not be appropriate for everyone. Consult your health care provider for more information.

Chantix is also a non-nicotine pill to help in smoking cessation. It was approved by the FDA in 2006. It is the first medicine that targets the nicotine receptors in the brain. Chantix attaches to the receptors and blocks nicotine from reaching them, decreasing the desire for nicotine. Chantix may not be appropriate for everyone and you should consult your health care provider.

Online Medical Reviewer: Fraser, Marianne, MSN, RN
Online Medical Reviewer: newMentor board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Date Last Reviewed: 6/27/2013
© 2000-2014 The StayWell Company, LLC. 780 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.
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