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Prevention Guidelines

Prevention Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers

Here are the screening tests and immunizations for infants from birth to age 2. Although you and your health care provider may decide that a different schedule is best for your baby, this plan can guide your discussion.


Who needs it

How often

Apgar (measurements done soon after birth -- heart rate, breathing, skin color, muscle tone, and reflex responses -- to evaluate the newborn's general condition and alertness at birth.

All newborns

1 and 5 minutes after birth

High lead level

All children in this age group

Risk assessment of lead exposure at age 6, 9 and 18 months; risk assessment or blood test at 12 and 24 months

Newborn screenings (a series of tests for metabolic, endocrine, hemoglobin, and other conditions; tests may vary by state)

Tests include hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, severe heart problems, and severe immunodeficiency

All newborns. talk with your health care provider about the tests in your state

Before leaving hospital

Tooth decay

Children ages 6 months and older

Dental exams every 6 months; fluoride supplements from age 6 months to 16 years for those with low fluoride levels in their water, fluoride varnish should be applied every 3 to 6 months


Who needs it

How often

Hepatitis B vaccine

All infants

At birth, between ages 1 to 2 months, and a final dose between ages 6 to 18 months

DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis)

All infants

At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, between ages 15 to 18 months, and a booster between ages 4 to 6 years 

Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate

All infants

2-dose series: At ages 2 and 4 months; booster dose between 12 to 15  months

3-dose series: At ages 2,4, and 6 months; booster dose between ages 12 to 15 months

Inactivated poliovirus

All infants

At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months (and a booster at 4 to 6 years)

Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)

All infants

At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and at 12 to 15 months

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)

All infants

First dose between ages12 to 15 months (and the second dose between 4 to 6 years, or before starting kindergarten)

Chickenpox (varicella)

Those infants who have not contracted chickenpox

Between ages 12 to15 months, and the second dose between 4 to 6 years

Flu (seasonal); trivalent inactivated influenza

All infants

At age 6 months, and then annually when the flu vaccine becomes available in the community; the first year your child gets this vaccine 2 doses are required

Hepatitis A

All infants

Between ages 12 to 23 months, with a second dose at least 6 months after the first dose


All infants

2-dose series: At ages 2 months, and  4 months

3-dose series: At ages 2,4, and 6

*Screening guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

All other screening guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Immunization schedule from the CDC

Online Medical Reviewer: Holloway, Beth, RN, M.Ed.
Online Medical Reviewer: MMI board-certified, academically affiliated clinician
Date Last Reviewed: 3/30/2015
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