Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk....more
Breast development happens in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also happen to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause....more
A breast biopsy is a procedure in which samples of breast tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present....more
Magnetic resonance imaging creates detailed images of the body using large magnets and a computer. For breast MRI, a woman will lie face down with her breasts positioned through holes in a table.
The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal....more
The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s....more
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause....more
People with this syndrome have dark moles around the mouth, nose, and eyes, as well as multiple polyps in the intestines....more
Li-Fraumeni syndrome raises the risk for breast cancer and many other types of cancer....more
The good news is that breast cancer can be treated successfully. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or any combination of these. Here's a closer look at each....more
When breast cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will order tests to find out if the cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. This is called staging and is an important step toward planning a treatment program....more
The tissue that lines the uterus is called the endometrium. Normally, if a woman doesn’t get pregnant, this tissue is shed each month during her period. In endometriosis, tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue implants outside the uterus.This can cause pain, heavy periods, and infertility.
Pelvic pain is a challenging condition that can be due to many possible causes.
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries....more
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40....more
Hysterectomy is surgery to remove the uterus. Your healthcare provider may also remove one or both ovaries, and the fallopian tubes. In some cases, he or she may remove other parts of the reproductive system....more
A cervical biopsy is a procedure to remove tissue from the cervix to test for abnormal or precancerous conditions, or cervical cancer....more
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left....more
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart....more
Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. A blood clot can block one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or a blood vessel in the brain can burst, spilling blood into surrounding tissues....more
Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram....more
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the simplest and fastest tests used to evaluate the heart. Electrodes (small, plastic patches that stick to the skin) are placed at certain locations on the chest, arms, and legs. When the electrodes are connected to an ECG machine by lead wires, the electrical activity of the heart is measured, interpreted, and printed out....more
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the simplest and fastest tests used to evaluate the heart. For this test, electrodes (small, plastic patches that stick to the skin) are placed at certain locations on the chest, arms, and legs. When the electrodes are connected to an ECG machine by wires, the electrical activity of the heart is measured, interpreted, and printed out....more
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects....more
Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat....more
Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome significantly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, and/or stroke....more
When your body can’t make enough insulin or can’t use insulin, it is called type 2 diabetes. Insulin helps the cells in the body absorb glucose, or sugar, for energy. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the blood resulting in “high blood sugar.”...more
Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight....more
Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does....more
Gastric bypass surgery, a type of bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery), is a procedure that alters the process of digestion. Bariatric surgery is the only option today that effectively treats morbid obesity in people for whom more conservative measures such as diet, exercise, and medication have not been effective.
Gastric restrictive surgery is a type of bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery. It limits the amount of food you can eat. This surgery may be used to treat severe obesity when diet, exercise, and medication have failed....more
Osteoporosis is a disease that causes weak, thinning bones. This leaves the bones at greater risk of breaking. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.
A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density....more
A bone scan is a radiology procedure used to look at the skeleton. It is done to find areas of physical and chemical changes in bone. A bone scan may also be used to see if treatment of certain conditions is working....more
A bone density test is used to measure the bone mineral content and density. It may be done using X-rays, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA), or a special CT scan that uses computer software to determine bone density of the hip or spine....more
Breast augmentation surgery is a common plastic surgery procedure done to improve the appearance of a woman's breasts. The surgery uses breast implants to increase the size or the fullness of the breasts. ...more
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast....more
Anemia is a common blood disorder. It occurs when there are fewer red blood cells than normal, or there is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood....more
Yeast is a fungus normally found inside your body and on your skin. When too much yeast grows, it can cause infection. Anti-fungal creams or oral medicines are used to treat it.
Nearly everyone has suffered from a headache. This article discusses several types of headache, how they are diagnosed and treated....more
One theory says that migraine pain occurs because of waves of activity by groups of excitable brain cells, which trigger chemicals, such as serotonin to constrict blood vessels....more
When the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, the bladder may drop or sag into the vagina. This disorder in women is called cystocele.
Urinary tract infections or UTIs are infections in any part of the urinary tract. They are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to UTIs.
Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week....more
Runner's knee means that you have dull pain around the front of the knee (patella). This is where the knee connects with the lower end of the thighbone (femur).